Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Significant Accounting Policies

Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2018
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Significant Accounting Policies



Basis of Presentation


The unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“US GAAP”) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required to be presented for complete financial statements. The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements reflect all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring items) which are, in the opinion of management, necessary for a fair presentation of the results for the interim periods presented. The accompanying condensed consolidated Balance Sheet as of March 31, 2018 has been derived from the audited consolidated financial statements included in our Transitional Report on Form 10-KT for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and for the year then ended December 31, 2017, respectively. The condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures have been prepared with the assumption that users of the interim financial information have read or have access to the audited consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included in the Transitional Report on Form 10-KT for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and for year ended December 31, 2017, respectively, which was filed with the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, (“SEC”), on June 15, 2018.


Principles of Consolidation


These condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company since the effective date of the reverse capitalization and the accounts of AIT since inception. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in the accompanying condensed financial statements.


Use of Estimates


The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses for the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates. The Company’s significant estimates are warrant liabilities valuation, valuation of option liability, and valuation of deferred taxes.


Cash and Cash Equivalents


Cash equivalents are short-term highly liquid investments that are readily convertible to cash with original maturities of three months or less at acquisition.


Concentration of Credit Risk


Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and marketable securities. Cash and cash equivalents are invested in major banks in Israel and U.S. Management believes that the financial institutions that hold the Company’s investments are financially sound and, accordingly, minimal credit risk exists with respect to these investments. At times, such amounts may exceed federally insured limits.


The Company has no off-balance-sheet concentration of credit risk such as foreign exchange contracts, option contracts or other foreign hedging arrangements.


Restricted Cash


Restricted cash accounts are invested in bank deposit. These deposits serve as collateral for the Company’s vehicle lease.


Research and Development


Research and development expenses are charged to the statement of comprehensive loss as incurred. Research and development expenses include salaries, costs incurred by outside laboratories, manufacturer’s, consultants, accredited facilities in connection with clinical trials and preclinical studies and stock based-compensation.


Foreign Exchange Transactions


AIT’s operations are in Israel and AITT’s operations are in the United States. The Company’s management believes that the U.S. dollar is the currency of the primary economic environment in which the Company operates and expects to continue to operate in the foreseeable future. Thus, the functional and reporting currency of the Company is the U.S. dollar. The Company’s transactions and balances denominated in U.S. dollars are presented at their original amounts. Non-dollar transactions and balances have been re-measured to U.S. dollars in accordance with the Accounting Standards Board (ASC) 830, “Foreign Currency Matter”.


Stock-Based Compensation


The Company measures the cost of employee services received in exchange for an award of equity instruments based on the grant-date fair value of the award. That cost is recognized over the period during which an employee is required to provide service in exchange for the award - the requisite service period. The grant-date fair value of employee share options is estimated using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. The risk-free interest rate assumptions were based upon the observed interest rates appropriate for the expected term of the equity instruments. The expected dividend yield was assumed to be zero as the Company has not paid any dividends since its inception and does not anticipate paying dividends in the foreseeable future. The expected volatility was based upon its peer group. The Company routinely reviews its calculation of volatility changes in future volatility, the Company’s life cycle, its peer group, and other factors. The Company uses the simplified method for share-based compensation to estimate the expected term for employee option awards for share-based compensation in its option-pricing model. The Company uses the contractual term for non- employee options to estimate the expected term, for share-based compensation in its option-pricing model. Compensation expense for warrants granted to non-employees is determined by the fair value of the consideration received or the fair value of the equity instruments issued, whichever is more reliably measured, and is recognized over the service period. The expense is subsequently adjusted to fair value at the end of each reporting period until such warrants vest, and the fair value of such instruments, as adjusted, is expensed over the related vesting period. Adjustments to fair value at each reporting date may result in income or expense, depending upon the estimate of fair value and the amount of expense recorded prior to the adjustment. The Company reviews its agreements and the future performance obligation with respect to the unvested warrants for its vendors or consultants. When appropriate, the Company will expense the unvested warrants at the time when management deems the service obligation for future services has ceased.


Investment in Marketable Securities


Investments in marketable securities classified available for sale are carried at fair value with the changes in unrealized gains and losses recognized in the Company’s results of operations as other comprehensive income (loss) at each measurement date. Realized gains and (loss) from the sale of marketable securities are recognized in the statement of comprehensive loss using the specific identification method on a trade date basis.


Property and Equipment


Property and equipment are stated at cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated amortization. Depreciation and amortization is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful life of the assets as follows:


Computers equipment Three years
Furniture and fixtures Seven years
Clinical and medical equipment Fifteen years
Leasehold improvements Shorter of term of lease or estimated useful life of the asset


Licensing right to use technology


Licensing right to use technology is an intangible asset resulting from the NitricGen transaction. The intangible asset was valued based upon the fair value of the options owed to NitricGen and the cash paid for this transaction. Intangible assets are considered to have an indefinite life until the completion or abandonment of the associated research and development project.


Income Taxes


The Company accounts for income taxes using the asset and liability method. Accordingly, deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in the tax rate is recognized in income or expense in the period that the change is effective. Tax benefits are recognized when it is probable that the deduction will be sustained. A valuation allowance is established when it is more likely than not that all or a portion of a deferred tax asset will either expire before the Company is able to realize the benefit, or that future deductibility is uncertain. As of December 31, 2018, and March 31, 2018, the Company recorded a valuation allowance to the full extent of our net deferred tax assets since the likelihood of realization of the benefit does not meet the more likely than not threshold. On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Act. The Tax Act reduces the federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%, effective January 1, 2018, which the Company expects will positively impact its future effective tax rate and after-tax earnings in the United States. The Company recognized a decrease related to its federal deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities, before the valuation allowance. Because a change in the valuation allowance completely offsets the change in deferred taxes, there was no impact on the condensed consolidated financial statements related to the rate change.


The Company files a U.S. Federal, various state, and International income tax returns. Uncertain tax positions are reviewed on an ongoing basis and are adjusted in light of changing facts and circumstances. Such adjustment is reflected in the tax provision when appropriate. The Company will recognize interest and penalties, if any, related to unrecognized tax benefits in income taxes in the statements of comprehensive loss. The Company has recorded a liability in accrued expenses of $154,300 for an uncertain tax position as of December 31, 2018 and March 31, 2018, respectively.


Net Income (Loss) Per Share


Basic net income (loss) per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by dividing the net income (loss) attributable to common stockholders by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Diluted net income (loss) per share is computed by dividing net income (loss) for the period by the weighted average number of shares of common stock and potentially dilutive common stock outstanding during the period. The dilutive effect of outstanding options, warrants, restricted stock and stock-based compensation awards is reflected in diluted net income (loss) per share by application of the treasury stock method. The calculation of diluted net income (loss) per share excludes all anti-dilutive common shares. For periods in which the Company has reported net losses, diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is the same as basic net loss per share attributable to common stockholders, because dilutive common shares are not assumed to have been issued if their effect is anti-dilutive.


Recently Issued and Adopted Accounting Standards


In January 2017, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) FASB released Accounting Standards Update “ASU” 2017-01, Business Combinations: Clarifying the Definition of a Business, which clarifies the definition of a business with the objective of adding guidance to assist entities with evaluating whether transactions should be accounted for as acquisitions or disposals of assets or businesses. The amendments in this ASU should be applied prospectively and are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted. No disclosures are required at transition. The Company adopted this standard during the third quarter December 31, 2018 and this standard did not have a material impact on our condensed consolidated financial statements.


In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting. This standard provides clarity and reduces both (1) diversity in practice and (2) cost and complexity when applying the guidance in Topic 718, Compensation-Stock Compensation, to a change to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. The Company adopted the standard commencing April 1, 2018. The impact of the adoption had no effect to the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.


In July 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-11, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480) and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): I. Accounting for Certain Financial Instruments with Down Round Features. II. Replacement of the Indefinite Deferral for Mandatorily Redeemable Financial Instruments of Certain Nonpublic Entities and Certain Mandatorily Redeemable Noncontrolling Interests with a Scope Exception. This ASU affects all entities that issue financial instruments (for example, warrants or convertible instruments) that include down round features. Part I of this ASU relates to the recognition, measurement, and earnings per share of certain freestanding equity-classified financial instruments that include down round features affect entities that present earnings per share in accordance with the guidance in Topic 260, Earnings Per Share, while in Part II does not have an accounting effect. The Company elected to adopt Accounting Standards Update 2017-11during the third quarter of 2018, retrospective to outstanding financial instruments with down round feature by means of cumulative-effect adjustment by increasing beginning additional paid-in capital by $6,194,292 and decreasing accumulated deficit by $516,358 as of April 1, 2018.


In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash (ASU 2016-18), which requires companies to include amounts generally described as restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents in cash and cash equivalents when reconciling beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. The Company adopted the standard commencing January 1, 2018. The impact of the adoption was immaterial to the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.


Recently Issued and not Adopted Accounting Standards


In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) (ASU 2016-02), which generally requires companies to recognize operating and financing lease liabilities and corresponding right-of-use assets on the balance sheet. This update is effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those annual periods. The Company is evaluating the effect that this guidance will have on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.


In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Stock-based Compensation: Improvements to Nonemployee Share-based Payment Accounting, which amends the existing accounting standards for share-based payments to nonemployees. This ASU aligns much of the guidance on measuring and classifying nonemployee awards with that of awards to employees. Under the new guidance, the measurement of nonemployee equity awards is fixed on the grant date. This ASU becomes effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018 and early adoption is permitted but no earlier than an entity’s adoption date of Topic 606. Entities will apply the ASU by recognizing a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the annual period of adoption. The Company is evaluating of evaluating the impact of this accounting standard update on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.


In August 2018, the SEC adopted the final rule under SEC Release No. 33-10532, “Disclosure Update and Simplification,” amending certain disclosure requirements that were redundant, duplicative, overlapping, outdated or superseded. In addition, the amendments expanded the disclosure requirements on the analysis of stockholders’ equity for interim financial statements. Under the amendments, an analysis of changes in each caption of stockholders’ equity presented in the balance sheet must be provided in a note or separate statement. The analysis should present a reconciliation of the beginning balance to the ending balance of each period for which a statement of comprehensive income is required to be filed. This final rule is effective on November 5, 2018. The Company is evaluating the impact of this guidance on its condensed financial statements. The Company anticipates its first presentation of changes in stockholders’ equity will be included in its Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2019.


In August 2018, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2018-13, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework-Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement”, which adds disclosure requirements to Topic 820 for the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements. The guidance is effective for the Company’s interim and annual reporting periods beginning with the Company’s fiscal year ended March 31, 2021, and early adoption is permitted. The Company is evaluating the impact of this accounting standard update on the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements.